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Literature Review

The Role of Public Participation in Climate Change Adaptation Planning

The importance of including a broad range of stakeholders to address climate change is growing worldwide. According to Sheppard, effective solutions will require the combined efforts of all level of government, private sectors, and community members acting together (2011). The United Nation Development Program announced, ‘Adaptation Policy Frameworks’ to formulate adaptation strategies for climate change, […]

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Literature Review

Social Vulnerability to Hazards and Climate Change

Recent environmental hazard literature has tended to focus on assessing the physical impacts such as destroyed infrastructures and loss of properties and has less focused on social vulnerability in affected communities (Feisenstein, 2014). Climate events might affect particular social groups differentially. According to Blaikie et al.’s (1994) definition, social vulnerability is the “characteristics of an […]

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Literature Review

Transportation Adaptation Strategies to Sea Level Rise

Estimating the effects of strategies such as accommodation, protection or retreat can increase adaptive capacity as well as assessing the vulnerability of a region due to SLR (Onat et al., 2018).  Protecting all transportation infrastructure elements from any weather events would be expensive, therefore, planners need to provide the potential scenarios with frequencies or predict […]

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Literature Review

Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding's Impact on Transportation

Sea level has been rising since the late 19th century or early 20th century when global temperatures began to increase, and NOAA researchers announce that it will continuously rise even at a higher rate during the 21st century (Lindsey, 2018). The IPCC (2007) estimated that global sea level rose an average of 1.7 ± 0.5 […]