According to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the global sea level has been rising over the past century, approximately 2.6 inches above the 1993 average and it continues to increase at a rate of about one-eight of an inch per year. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, since the peak of the last ice age, average global sea-levels have risen by more than 120 meters. Climate change is on track to raise sea level by one to three feet by the end of century (2100) even with the most aggressive emission cutes, due to the Greenhouse Gases already emitted. Although the impacts of sea level rise vary from place to place due to differences in the land elevation and SLR rate, but in general, the physical, economic and social consequences are massive; hence it is widely viewed as a threat to national security.
Sea level rise, as one of the most wide-spread and important climate change factors, has become a pressing threat to transportation infrastructure, especially in coastal region. At the global level, flight cancels and travel delay are the major impact of flood and king tides on the transportation system.