Hawaii

it is a challenge for Hawaii given the geographic and topographic situation of these islands. While much research have been conducted to assess the potential impacts and physical vulnerability of transportation network to sea level rise.

in Hawai’i, sea level has risen at approximately 1.5mm/yr (0.6in/decade) over the past century (NOAA, n.d.), on the Development of a Model to Simulate Groundwater Inundation Induced by Sea-Level Rise and High Tides in Honolulu identified tidal flooding as equally damaging in Hawai’i, particularly in Waikiki area known as a major tourism center.